Environmental Impact - MPCD - BIOSINFO

We propose to clean the areas, the sand and the vegetation "In Site" with Biodegradable Chemicals MPCD and Biological Acceptable Products BIOSINFO that are Environmentally Friendly to accelerate the process of Biodegradation. To do that we need heavy machinery to mix the products with the soil and sand and a lot of hand labor "In Site".

BP Oil Spill - Environmental Impact

The exact nature and duration of any impacts from an oil spill depend on a number of factors. These include the type and amount of oil and its behaviour once spilled; the physical characteristics of the affected area; weather conditions and season; the type and effectiveness of the clean-up response; the biological and economic characteristics of the area and their sensitivity to oil pollution. Typical effects on marine organisms range across a spectrum from toxicity (especially for light oils and products) to smothering (heavier oils and weathered residues). The presence of toxic components does not always cause mortality, but may induce temporary effects like narcosis and tainting of tissues, which usually subside over time. Some typical oil impacts are described below.

Plankton

The importance of plankton in primary productivity of the oceans and as a temporary home for the eggs and larvae of fish, shellfish, sea bed and shoreline organisms is well known, but is there evidence of widespread harm to these functions from spills which subsequently translates into long term damage? Laboratory studies have demonstrated toxic and sub-lethal effects on the plankton caused by oil, and there is little doubt that there is potential for widespread impact. Unfortunately, plankton is extremely difficult to study reliably because they are amongst the most variable of marine communities in space and in time. The presence of oil on open water is also patchy and transient, making it difficult to establish where and when the plankton might have been exposed to the oil. Whilst the possibility of long-term effects can not be excluded, there is no indication that oil-induced losses of eggs and larval stages cause a significant decline in adult populations.

Seabirds

Seabirds are amongst the most vulnerable inhabitants of open waters since they are easily harmed by floating oil. Species that dive for their food or which congregate on the sea surface are particularly at risk. Although oil ingested by birds during attempts to clean themselves by preening may be lethal, the most common cause of death is from drowning, starvation and loss of body heat following fouling of plumage by oil.

Cleaning and rehabilitation after oiling is often attempted, but for many species it is rare for more than a fraction of oiled birds to survive cleaning and rarer still for those that survive to breed successfully after release. Penguins are an exception and are much more resilient than most other birds. When handled properly, the majority are likely to survive the cleaning process and rejoin breeding populations.

Bird mortality occurs during most spills and in some major spills breeding colonies have been seriously depleted. Some species react to colony depletion by laying more eggs, breeding more frequently or younger birds joining the breeding group. These processes can assist recovery, although recovery may take several years and will also depend on other factors like food supply. Whilst it is common for short and medium term loss to occur in populations, there is scant evidence of spills causing long-term harm to populations, or of a spill tipping a marginal colony into permanent decline.

Sea Mammals

Whales, dolphins and seals in the open sea do not appear to be particularly at risk from oil spills. Marine mammals such as seals and otters that breed on shorelines are, however, more likely to encounter oil. Species which rely on fur to regulate their body temperature are the most vulnerable since, if the fur becomes matted with oil, the animals may die from hypothermia or overheating, depending on the season.

Shallow Coastal Waters

Spill damage in shallow waters is most often caused by oil becoming mixed into the sea by wave action or by dispersant chemicals used inappropriately. In many circumstances the dilution capacity is sufficient to keep oil concentrations in the water below harmful levels, but in cases where light, toxic products have become dispersed, or in major incidents where heavy wave action has dispersed large volumes of oil close inshore, large kills of marine organisms such as shellfish have occurred. Post-spill studies reveal that recovery has taken place in a relatively short timescale through the processes noted earlier, and impacts are rarely detectable beyond a few years. In one instance, the BRAER spill in Shetland, UK, most of the spilt oil was dispersed naturally by heavy wave action, thus avoiding much of the shoreline contamination normally associated with large oil spills. However, some oil became incorporated into sea bed sediments, causing long-term tainting of some commercial species.

Shorelines

Shorelines, more than any other part of the marine environment, are exposed to the effects of oil as this is where it naturally tends to accumulate. However, many of the animals and plants on the shore are inherently tough since they must be able to tolerate periodic exposure to pounding waves, drying winds, high temperatures, rainfall and other severe stresses. This tolerance also gives many shoreline organisms the ability to withstand and recover from oil spill effects.

Rocky and sandy shores exposed to wave action and the scouring effects of tidal currents tend to be resilient to the effects of a spill as they usually self-clean quite rapidly. Rocky shores exposed to wave action are often quoted as those which recover most rapidly, and there have been many cases in which this was true. A typical example of impact on this habitat is the temporary loss of a keystone species, the limpet, which is a grazing snail, which leads to a 'bloom' of seaweeds in their absence. Because of the increased availability of their food source, re-colonisation by limpets usually follows rapidly and the normal grazing pattern is re-established.

However, in some circumstances, subtle changes to rocky shore communities can be triggered by a spill, which can subsequently be detected for ten or more years. Although the functioning, diversity and productivity of the ecosystem is restored, the detailed distribution of particular species present may alter. The TORREY CANYON oil spill in 1967 is a case in point. Heavy and inappropriate use of toxic cleaning agents caused massive damage to some shores, and although re-colonisation by most of the dominant organisms was rapid, subtle differences in the distribution of species could be traced over more than twenty years when compared with un-oiled sites. The overall functioning and productivity of these shores seems unimpaired, but it is difficult to be absolutely certain of this because of all the other stresses on the system, including those from tourism and fishing.

Soft sediment shores consisting of fine sands and mud are found in areas which are sheltered from wave action, including estuaries, and tend to be highly biologically productive. They often support large populations of migrating birds, indigenous populations of specialist sediment dwellers and shellfisheries. They also act as nursery areas for some species. Oil can become incorporated in fine sediments through a number of mechanisms. Examples include flocculation with sediment stirred up by storm activity and penetration down worm burrows and open plant stems. If oil does penetrate fine sediments it can persist for many years, increasing the likelihood of longer-term effects. The upper fringe of 'soft' shores is often dominated by saltmarsh which is generally only temporarily harmed by a single oiling. However, damage lasting many years can be inflicted by repeated oil spills or by aggressive clean-up activity, such as trampling or removal of oiled substrate.

In tropical regions, mangrove swamps replace saltmarshes and provide an extremely rich and diverse habitat as well as coastal protection and important nursery areas. The mangrove trees which provide the framework upon which this habitat depends can sometimes be killed depending on the type of oil and the substrate in which the trees are growing. Damage is more likely if oil smothers their breathing roots or if toxic oils penetrate the sediments. Where high mortality of trees occurs, in some cases including trees which are 50 or more years old, natural recovery to a diverse and productive structure can take decades. An important function of both saltmarsh and mangrove habitats is that they provide organic inputs to coastal waters which in turn enrich the communities living there. It is in these marsh and mangrove areas where damage has been recorded that reinstatement measures have real potential to speed up recovery.

MPCD - BIOSINFO - THERMAL DESORPTION PROCESS

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